Iontophoresis facial mask and microneedling (fractional dermabrasion)
The microneedles of the DermaPen open microchannels in the epidermis and dermis. These microchannels are open only for a short period, estimated by Greco (2007) to be on the order of one hour.The opportunity to introduce topical substances into the pores created just after microneedling (fractional dermabrasion) has been used both by clinicians and researchers. In order to make ionic (charged) molecules available to enter the channels opened by dermal needling, often an iontophoresis mask is used. The mask produces an electrical field, either steady state or oscillating, which mobilizes ions of topical substances placed under the mask. These agitated ions are more likely to find their way into the channels.